IMPLEMENTATION OF SECOND WAR GUILT INFORMATION PROGRAM
JUNE, 1946 - FEBRUARY, 1948
1. Most press activity, including thrice-weekly press conferences, daily press releases, and indoctrination of newspaper executives and writers, has been devoted to a positive program of demomcratization. Thus, the entire press of Japan, through CI&E at the national level and through Mlitary Government at the prefectural level, has been kept aware of daily developments in SCAP's accomplishment of the primary missions of the Occupation. Detailed statements and answers to questions on all phases of the Occupation have been handled through this medium, specifically in the fields of politics and government, social trends, economics, public health and welfare and foreign trade. SCAP, through this medium, has shown the Japanese what steps it has taken to advice and assist them. It has also detailed philosophies and methods whereby the nation not only could achieve democracy but could help itself economically and socially.
2. While this process of democratization was in progress, direct reminders of Japan's war guilt and ultra-nationalism, which led to disaster, have not been neglected. Before the War Crime Trials opened in June, 1946, CIE held two press conferences for the Chief of the International Prosecution Section and one for the Defense Section, attended by representatives of Kyodo News Service and all leading newspapers in the nation. The purposes and methods of the international Tribunal were discussed thoroughly and were covered thoroughly be the press. Conferences were held at Yokohama to launch the information program for the Class B war criminal trials there. Since the opening of both series of trials, CIE has distributed daily the PIO release on the class B trials and has conducted a full-time information program on the major trials, by assigning a liaison officer to daily duty with Japanese correspondents at the Tribunal.
3. Particular attention has been paid, through the War Crimes information program, to obtaining for Japanese press all positive information on the trials, particularly on details of the prosecution's case and the testimony of prosecution wittnesses. Coverage has been extended to newsreels and the radio several times monthly, but widespread press coverage has also resulted daily. While it is true that because of the extremely critical newsprint situation full stories have not often been feasible, the coverage has been constant and top display has often been given.
4. Through the activities of the OIC, Press and Publications Unit, press and magazine executives have become aware of the fact that the economic, social, and human waste of war is such that no civilized person can countenance it as a method of resolving conflicts between nations; that a free press manned by journalists of integrity is feared by all tyrants, bosses, and dictators, who would impose one will upon the many. Such a press is the voice of the people. Without such free newspapers, the people （以下脱落あり）
1. The program "War Trial Reports" presenting testimony and evidence of the progress of war trials, has been in effect since the Yokohama trials began. In June, 1946, this program was switched to cover the Tokyo trials for a twenty-minute period daily except Sundays, on which days time is devoted to trial observations by representatives of leading Tokyo newspapers.
2. Concurrently, the "War Trial Summary", presenting a summation of highlights of trials for the week and excerpts of testimony, with commentaries by competent trial observers, is broadcast every Saturday night except during court recesses.
3. During the Yokohama trials semi-weekly recordings through the "Man On The Street" program have been presented, to give the "average man" in attendance the opportunity to express his views of the trials.
4. In addition to these programs, an undetermined number of references, examples, discussions, roundtables, and news items have been presented. Much has been concerned with direct quotations of, or reference to, Japan's war guilt, or indirect reference to the trials or the defeat which ultra-nationalistic leaders brought upon Japan.
1. The following paragraphs summarize Japanese newsreel coverage, under guidance of CIE, through the three major newsreel companies enjoying national distribution:
a. Nippon Motion Picture Company: 61 newsreel sequences of the Tokyo trials, three of the Yokohama trials, and three documentaries entitled: "The first week of the Tokyo Trials", "Under the Flag of Peace", and "Pearl Habor Attack".
b. Shinsekai Motion Picturee Company: 58 sequences covering the Tokyo trials and one covering the Yokohama Trials.
c. Riken Motion Picture Company: 15 sequences covering the Tokyo trials.
2. CIE has worked constantly to stimulate the production of feature pictutres built around the war guilt theme. Many pictures have touched on this theme, but four outstanding films, produces in 1946 and 1947, have been principally concerned with it. They have played to a total audience coservatively estimated at 15,000,000. These films are:
a. As Long as I Live, produced by Toho, released 1 August 1946 to an estimated audience of 2,000,000. Story: A drama portraying oppresion by the secret police of a man who opposed the war by "going underground."
b. What Did Parrot See? Produced by Shochiku, released 8 August 1946 to an estimated audience of 3,500,000. Story: The tyranny of the Japanese Army as told through the biography of a demobilized soldier.
c. Youth Regret Not, produced by Toho, released 29 October 1946 to an estimated audiene of 4,000,000. Story: The life of a Kyoto Imperial University professor and a student who engages in underground activity against the militarists. This picture was selected as the best in the Japanese 1946 "Motion Picture Concours", which corresponds with the National Motion Picture Academy and the "Oscar" awards in the United States.
d. War and Peace, produces by Toho, released 22 July 1947 to an estimated audience of 5,500,000. Story: A family tragedy brought on by the war. Woven into the plot is the theme of the renunciation of war and the placing of war guilt. This film was initiated by the Constitution Popularization Society to emphasize the renunciation of war and was selected as the best picture in the Japanese 1947 "Motion Picture Concours".
1. The first Japanese book devoted exclusively to the war crimes trials was "Japan on Trial", written by four Tokyo authors and published by Ijin Sha, Tokyo, on 20 October 1946. It listed the defendants and the charges against them, supplied a roster of the Tribunal, the Prosecution and the Defense, and covered the first 28 days of the trials against the major war crimes defendants. Thirteen thousand copies were published and sold. (Tab J-1).
2. Currently, a booklet is being published by Asahi Shimbun in Tokyo, entitled Demands of Civilization. This consists of the entire text of Chief Counsel Keenan's summation of the prosecution's case, with a preface written by Maj. C. Imboden, OIC. Press and Publications Unit, CIE, at the invitation of the publisher. (See Tab J-2 for English version and Tab-J-3 for Japanese translation). The first edition will consist of 100,000 copies, more editions are contemplated as newsprint scrap, left over from the Asahi's newspaper requirements, becomes available. This booklet will be sold throughout the nation.